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References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
References
 
 
1.      Carey, M. A., J. R. Finnamore, M. J. Morrey and P. A. Marsland (2000): Guidance on the Assessment and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
2.      American Society for Testing and Materials (1998):  Standard Guide for Remediation of Ground Water by Natural Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites, Designation E 1943, published August 1998.
 
3.      U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water.  EPA/600/R-98/128, Washington DC.
 
4.      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999):  Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9200.4-17P, April 1999.
 
 
5.      Alleman, B. C. and Leeson, A. (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds.  The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, San Diego, California,  Battelle Press.
 
6.      Golder Associates (UK) Ltd (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater,  R&D Technical Report P305, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
7.      Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group In Situ Bioremediation Work Team and Industrial Members of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (1999):  Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practice.
 
8.      Kelley, Mark, V. Magar, S. Brauning, J. Shahan & G.B. Wickramanayacke (1996): Intrinsic Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Technical Memorandum TM-2185-ENV, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, California, 93043-4370, published June 1996.
 
9.      Marsland, P. A. and M. A. Carey, (1999):  Methodology for the Derivation of Remedial Targets for Soil and Groundwater to Protect Water Resources.  R&D Publication 20, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
10.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Characteristics of Key Contaminants Relevant to Their Natural Attenuation in the Subsurface – A Review of Grey Literature, R&D Technical Report P2-247/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
11.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): Laboratory to Field Scale Relationships in the Assessment of the Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-245/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
12.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (2002): The Effects of Contaminant Concentration on the Potential for Natural Attenuation, R&D Technical Report P2-228/TR, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
13.   Noble, P. and P. Morgan (1999): Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater, R&D Technical Report P2-134/01, Environment Agency, Bristol.
 
14.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (2000):  Natural Attenuation Decision Support System, User’s Manual Version 1.0.  EPA/600/R-00/008, Washington DC.
 
15.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) 1999.  San Francisco, CA.
 
16.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1998):  Monitored Natural Attenuation for Ground Water Seminars.  EPA/625/K-98/001, Washington DC.
 
17.   U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999):  Microbial processes affecting monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface.  Ann Azadpour-Keeley, Hugh R. Russell and Guy W. Sewell.  EPA/540/S-99/001, Washington DC.
 
Wiedemeier, Todd H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and  J. T. Wilson (1999): Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, published in Canada and U.S.A.
Biological oxidation of dissolved-phase petroleum hydrocarbons, particularly BTEX can occur rapidly when sufficient oxygen is available (normally it is not, and the rate of oxygen transfer into the system is limiting).
Once available oxygen is consumed, nitrate, iron and sulphate reducing bacteria become active and rapidly drive a system anaerobic.
Methanogenic conditions often occur at the core of a BTEX plume.
Biological oxidation of dissolved-phase petroleum hydrocarbons, particularly BTEX can occur rapidly when sufficient oxygen is available (normally it is not, and the rate of oxygen transfer into the system is limiting).
Rate constant for Benzene is lower than for other components, but persistence not often seen in practice.
Once available oxygen is consumed, nitrate, iron and sulphate reducing bacteria become active and rapidly drive a system anaerobic.
Methanogenic conditions often occur at the core of a BTEX plume.
What happens when the evaluation indicated that NA will not be effective?
What happens when the evaluation indicated that NA will not be effective?
What happens when the evaluation indicated that NA will not be effective?
What happens when the evaluation indicated that NA will not be effective?
What happens when the evaluation indicated that NA will not be effective?
Anaerobic processes much less efficient then aerobic, less energy is extracted by biota.
Note small range for reductive dechlorination.
Frequent misunderstanding of Eh and potential measured against Ag/AgCl reference electrode.
Most hydrogeologists familiar with this diagram in one of its many forms
Chlorinated hydrocarbons are very significant groundwater contaminants.
Understanding of their degradation pathways is important.
What happens when the evaluation indicated that NA will not be effective?
What happens when the evaluation indicated that NA will not be effective?
Start with some definitions
Most of us know what we mean when we refer no NA, but it can mean different things to different people.
These definitions derived from USEPA and UKEA, but have some subtle differences, likely to be adopted by NSW EPA.
Remediation by natural attenuation is not considered to be a presumptive remedy. A determination of whether remediation by monitored natural attenuation is appropriate for a particular site (relative to site-specific remedial goals) requires site characterisation, assessment of potential risks, evaluation of the need for primary and secondary source removal or control, and evaluation of potential effectiveness.
 
When properly applied to a site, remediation by monitored natural attenuation is a process for reducing risk and achieving defined remedial goals.
Sorption, hydrodynamic dispersion and volatilisation are physical processes – they are non-destructive, resulting in transfer to another phase or simply in a reduction in concentration, possibly to levels that do not create risk.  They occur, they are significant, they should not be ignored.  These processes are functions of the aquifer geometry, lithology and hydraulic properties, as well as the chemical and physical characteristics of the contaminants.  They can be modelled effectively.
Hydrolysis and other abiotic chemical reactions are generally relatively slow at aquifer temperatures and pressures for the contaminants of principal concern in groundwater.
Biodegradation processes are of substantial interest.
Sustainability an important issue – long-term availability of substrates, electoron acceptors
Changes in condition – pavement, excavations
Application and implementation of remediation by natural attenuation requires demonstration of progress towards attainment of those remedial goals.  This is achieved by the use of converging lines of evidence, which are obtained through monitoring and evaluation of the resulting data. Monitoring should be continued until it has been demonstrated that natural attenuation will progress and eventually meet the remedial goals. 
 
The primary line of evidence for remediation by natural attenuation is provided by observed reductions in the lateral and vertical extent of the contaminant plume, together with observed reductions in concentrations of the contaminants of concern within the plume.
 
Secondary lines of evidence for remediation by natural attenuation may be provided by geochemical indicators of naturally occurring degradation and estimates of attenuation rates.
 
Additional optional lines of evidence can be provided by microbiological information, including field and laboratory microcosm studies, where this information directly demonstrates the occurrence of a particular biodegradation process at a site.  Further analysis of primary and secondary lines of evidence utilising, for example, solute transport modelling or estimates of assimilative capacity may also be required.

As with other remedial approaches, it is expected that where monitored natural attenuation is proposed as part of a remedial strategy for a site, the feasibility and appropriateness of monitored natural attenuation at that site would be demonstrated in a remedial action plan (RAP).  The RAP should draw upon site characterisation and risk assessment data acquired during previous investigation of the site.  It is expected that within the RAP the proponent will demonstrate an understanding of the particular processes relevant to the contaminant(s) of concern under the conditions at that specific site.
 
The RAP should define remedial goals and set out the scope, frequency and expected duration of the monitoring required to demonstrate that natural attenuation has been effective and those goals have been met.  Monitoring frequency should be sufficient to allow the progress of natural attenuation to be tracked, and to provide early warning if expectations are not being met, or if impacts on sensitive receptors become possible.  The RAP should also address the integration of monitored natural attenuation with other remedial technologies that may be proposed for source removal or reduction, and any potential interactions or interferences. The long-term sustainability of natural attenuation during and following any proposed redevelopment of the site must be considered.  Where reference is made to overseas research, an understanding of differences in hydrogeological conditions between research sites in northern Europe and North America and sites in New South Wales is expected. 
 
The Auditor’s role in review of an RAP is to check and confirm that all these expectations are met.  A checklist has been provided to assist this process.
 
Monitoring and validation reports should set out the lines of evidence for the progress and success of natural attenuation. The auditor’s role is to critically review the evidence presented and assess whether or not it is adequate to demonstrate that natural attenuation is occurring, or that remedial goals have been met.  Unless the auditor is satisfied that the primary line of evidence is conclusive, it will be necessary to evaluate secondary and additional lines of evidence.
Consider organic carbon, FeIII and MN IV in aquifer matrix too